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Hu , or authority, and Sia , or mind. Ra was represented in a variety of forms. The most usual form was a man with the head of a falcon and a solar disk on top and a coiled serpent around the disk.
Ra was also pictured as a full-bodied ram, beetle, phoenix, heron, serpent, bull, cat, or lion, among others. In some literature, Ra is described as an aging king with golden flesh, silver bones, and hair of lapis lazuli.
He was identified with the local sun god Atum. His worship increased massively in the Fifth Dynasty , when Ra became a state deity and pharaohs had specially aligned pyramids , obelisks , and sun temples built in his honor.
The rulers of the Fifth Dynasty told their followers that they were sons of Ra himself and the wife of the high priest of Heliopolis.
During the Middle Kingdom , Ra was increasingly affiliated and combined with other chief deities, especially Amun and Osiris. At the time of the New Kingdom of Egypt , the worship of Ra had become more complicated and grander.
Ra was said to carry the prayers and blessings of the living with the souls of the dead on the sun boat. The idea that Ra aged with the sun became more popular during the rise of the New Kingdom.
Many acts of worship included hymns , prayers, and spells to help Ra and the sun boat overcome Apep. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This article is about the Egyptian deity. For other uses, see Ra disambiguation. In one of his many forms, Ra, god of the sun, has the head of a falcon and the sun-disk inside a cobra resting on his head.
Funerals Offering formula Temples Pyramids. For the Egyptian month named in his honor, see Mesori. Archived from the original on A Dictionary of Egyptian Gods and Goddesses.
The Question of Evil in Ancient Egypt. The cult of Ra: Sun-worship in ancient Egypt. Thames and Hudson, p.
A guide to Egyptian religion. Oxford University Press, p. Women in Ancient Egypt. Dedi Djadjaemankh Rededjet Ubaoner.
Book Ancient Egypt portal. Retrieved from " https: Kon-Tiki demonstrated that it was possible for a primitive raft to sail the Pacific with relative ease and safety, especially to the west with the trade winds.
The raft proved to be highly manoeuvrable, and fish congregated between the nine balsa logs in such numbers that ancient sailors could have possibly relied on fish for hydration in the absence of other sources of fresh water.
Other rafts have repeated the voyage, inspired by Kon-Tiki. By Raft Across the South Seas has been translated into 70 languages.
Anthropologists continue to believe that Polynesia was settled from west to east, based on linguistic , physical, and genetic evidence, migration having begun from the Asian mainland.
Heyerdahl claimed that in Incan legend there was a sun-god named Con-Tici Viracocha who was the supreme head of the mythical fair-skinned people in Peru.
The legend continues with the mysterious bearded white men being attacked by a chief named Cari, who came from the Coquimbo Valley.
They had a battle on an island in Lake Titicaca, and the fair race was massacred. However, Kon-Tiki and his closest companions managed to escape and later arrived on the Pacific coast.
The legend ends with Kon-Tiki and his companions disappearing westward out to sea. When the Spaniards came to Peru, Heyerdahl asserted, the Incas told them that the colossal monuments that stood deserted about the landscape were erected by a race of white gods who had lived there before the Incas themselves became rulers.
They were unlike other Native Americans in that they had "white skins and long beards" and were taller than the Incas. The Incas said that the "white gods" had then left as suddenly as they had come and fled westward across the Pacific.
After they had left, the Incas themselves took over power in the country. Heyerdahl said that when the Europeans first came to the Pacific islands, they were astonished that they found some of the natives to have relatively light skins and beards.
There were whole families that had pale skin, hair varying in color from reddish to blonde. In contrast, most of the Polynesians had golden-brown skin, raven-black hair, and rather flat noses.
Heyerdahl claimed that when Jakob Roggeveen first discovered Easter Island in , he supposedly noticed that many of the natives were white-skinned.
Heyerdahl claimed that these people could count their ancestors who were "white-skinned" right back to the time of Tiki and Hotu Matua , when they first came sailing across the sea "from a mountainous land in the east which was scorched by the sun".
The Secret of Easter Island. They supposedly sailed from Peru to the Polynesian islands on pae-paes —large rafts built from balsa logs, complete with sails and each with a small cottage.
They built enormous stone statues carved in the image of human beings on Pitcairn , the Marquesas , and Easter Island that resembled those in Peru.
They also built huge pyramids on Tahiti and Samoa with steps like those in Peru. The oral history of the people of Easter Island, at least as it was documented by Heyerdahl, is completely consistent with this theory, as is the archaeological record he examined Heyerdahl Heyerdahl further argued in his book American Indians in the Pacific that the current inhabitants of Polynesia migrated from an Asian source, but via an alternate route.
He proposes that Polynesians travelled with the wind along the North Pacific current. These migrants then arrived in British Columbia.
Heyerdahl called contemporary tribes of British Columbia, such as the Tlingit and Haida , descendants of these migrants.
Heyerdahl claimed that cultural and physical similarities existed between these British Columbian tribes, Polynesians, and the Old World source.
In the late s, genetic testing found that the mitochondrial DNA of the Polynesians is more similar to people from Southeast Asia than to people from South America, showing that their ancestors most likely came from Asia.
Davis says that Heyerdahl "ignored the overwhelming body of linguistic, ethnographic, and ethnobotanical evidence, augmented today by genetic and archaeological data, indicating that he was patently wrong.
Heyerdahl and the professional archaeologists who travelled with him spent several months on Rapa Nui investigating several important archaeological sites.
Highlights of the project include experiments in the carving, transport and erection of the notable moai , as well as excavations at such prominent sites as Orongo and Poike.
Based on native testimony and archaeological research, he claimed the island was originally colonized by Hanau eepe "Long Ears" , from South America, and that Polynesian Hanau momoko "Short Ears" arrived only in the midth century; they may have come independently or perhaps were imported as workers.
Heyerdahl notes the oral tradition of an uprising of "Short Ears" against the ruling "Long Ears". The "Long Ears" dug a defensive moat on the eastern end of the island and filled it with kindling.
During the uprising, Heyerdahl claimed, the "Long Ears" ignited their moat and retreated behind it, but the "Short Ears" found a way around it, came up from behind, and pushed all but two of the "Long Ears" into the fire.
This moat was found by the Norwegian expedition and it was partly cut down into the rock. Layers of fire were revealed but no fragments of bodies.
As for the origin of the people of Easter Island, DNA tests have shown a connection to South America,  critics conjecture that this was a result of recent events, but whether this is inherited from a person coming in later times is hard to know.
If the story that almost all Long Ears were killed in a civil war is true, as the islanders story goes, it would be expected that the statue-building South American bloodline would have been nearly utterly destroyed, leaving for the most part the invading Polynesian bloodline.
In and , Heyerdahl built two boats from papyrus and attempted to cross the Atlantic Ocean from Morocco in Africa.
Based on drawings and models from ancient Egypt , the first boat, named Ra after the Egyptian Sun god , was constructed by boat builders from Lake Chad using papyrus reed obtained from Lake Tana in Ethiopia and launched into the Atlantic Ocean from the coast of Morocco.
Only Heyerdahl and Baker had sailing and navigation experience. After a number of weeks, Ra took on water. The crew discovered that a key element of the Egyptian boatbuilding method had been neglected, a tether that acted like a spring to keep the stern high in the water while allowing for flexibility.
The boat became lost and was the subject of a United Nations search and rescue mission. The search included international assistance including people as far afield as Loo-Chi Hu of New Zealand.
The boat reached Barbados , thus demonstrating that mariners could have dealt with trans-Atlantic voyages by sailing with the Canary Current.
The book The Ra Expeditions and the film documentary Ra were made about the voyages. Apart from the primary aspects of the expedition, Heyerdahl deliberately selected a crew representing a great diversity in race , nationality , religion and political viewpoint in order to demonstrate that at least on their own little floating island, people could cooperate and live peacefully.
Additionally, the expedition took samples of marine pollution and presented their report to the United Nations. Heyerdahl built yet another reed boat , Tigris , which was intended to demonstrate that trade and migration could have linked Mesopotamia with the Indus Valley Civilization in what is now Pakistan and western India.
Tigris was built in Iraq and sailed with its international crew through the Persian Gulf to Pakistan and made its way into the Red Sea.
After about five months at sea and still remaining seaworthy, the Tigris was deliberately burnt in Djibouti , on April 3, , as a protest against the wars raging on every side in the Red Sea and Horn of Africa.
Today we burn our proud ship Now we are forced to stop at the entrance to the Red Sea. Elsewhere around us, brothers and neighbors are engaged in homicide with means made available to them by those who lead humanity on our joint road into the third millennium.
To the innocent masses in all industrialized countries, we direct our appeal. We must wake up to the insane reality of our time We are all irresponsible, unless we demand from the responsible decision makers that modern armaments must no longer be made available to people whose former battle axes and swords our ancestors condemned.
Our planet is bigger than the reed bundles that have carried us across the seas, and yet small enough to run the same risks unless those of us still alive open our eyes and minds to the desperate need of intelligent collaboration to save ourselves and our common civilization from what we are about to convert into a sinking ship.
In the years that followed, Heyerdahl was often outspoken on issues of international peace and the environment. The Tigris had an eleven-man crew: Heyerdahl made four visits to Azerbaijan in ,  , and He was convinced that their artistic style closely resembled the carvings found in his native Norway.
The ship designs, in particular, were regarded by Heyerdahl as similar and drawn with a simple sickle-shaped line, representing the base of the boat, with vertical lines on deck, illustrating crew or, perhaps, raised oars.
Based on this and other published documentation, Heyerdahl proposed that Azerbaijan was the site of an ancient advanced civilization.
He believed that natives migrated north through waterways to present-day Scandinavia using ingeniously constructed vessels made of skins that could be folded like cloth.
When voyagers travelled upstream, they conveniently folded their skin boats and transported them on pack animals. He spoke of a notation made by Snorri Sturluson , a 13th-century historian-mythographer in Ynglinga Saga , which relates that " Odin a Scandinavian god who was one of the kings came to the North with his people from a country called Aser.
Azerbaijanis should be proud of their ancient culture. It is just as rich and ancient as that of China and Mesopotamia.
In September , Heyerdahl returned to Baku for the fourth time and visited the archaeological dig in the area of the Church of Kish.
This project generated harsh criticism and accusations of pseudoscience from historians, archaeologists and linguists in Norway, who accused Heyerdahl of selective use of sources, and a basic lack of scientific methodology in his work.
His central claims were based on similarities of names in Norse mythology and geographic names in the Black Sea region, e. The controversy surrounding the Search for Odin project was in many ways typical of the relationship between Heyerdahl and the academic community.
His theories rarely won any scientific acceptance, whereas Heyerdahl himself rejected all scientific criticism and concentrated on publishing his theories in popular books aimed at the general public.
Heyerdahl also investigated the mounds found on the Maldive Islands in the Indian Ocean. There, he found sun-oriented foundations and courtyards, as well as statues with elongated earlobes.
Heyerdahl believed that these finds fit with his theory of a seafaring civilization which originated in what is now Sri Lanka , colonized the Maldives , and influenced or founded the cultures of ancient South America and Easter Island.
His discoveries are detailed in his book The Maldive Mystery. Heyerdahl advanced a theory according to which the Canaries had been bases of ancient shipping between America and the Mediterranean.
Heyerdahl was also an active figure in Green politics. He was the recipient of numerous medals and awards. He also received 11 honorary doctorates from universities in the Americas and Europe.
In subsequent years, Heyerdahl was involved with many other expeditions and archaeological projects.